General-purpose, high-level programming language supporting multiple programming paradigms.
If you are working on a piece of Python software, you probably want to test it
on multiple Python interpreters. On Fedora, that’s easy: all you have to do is
dnf to install what you need. Currently Fedora has the following Pythons
ready for you in the repositories:
Quite a nest, isn’t it? You can install them like this:
$ sudo dnf install python37 # to get CPython 3.7 $ sudo dnf install python34 # to get CPython 3.4 $ sudo dnf install python26 # to get CPython 2.6 $ sudo dnf install pypy pypy3 jython python35 # to get more at once
After that, you can run an interactive console or your script with, let’s say, CPython 3.4:
$ python3.4 Python 3.4.3 (default, Jul 11 2016, 11:30:44) [GCC 5.3.1 20160406 (Red Hat 5.3.1-6)] on linux Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information. >>>
Warning: For production purposes you should use
packages only. Other CPython versions might be unstable or even dangerous
(either because they are extremely old or quite the contrary alpha/beta quality)
and are intended solely for development.
Tox is tool that helps you test your Python code on multiple Pythons. If you install it on Fedora via the dnf package manager, you’ll automatically get all the CPythons (except the development version) and PyPys:
$ sudo dnf install tox
If you are not yet familiar with tox, don’t worry. This short example will show you how to start.
Let’s create a directory and a simple Python file in it that will say something nice:
# say.py print('Fedora is the best OS for Python developers', end='\n\n')
Now we’ll test if it works with all the Pythons, with tox.
We’ll create a simple configuration file for tox,
tox.ini, in the same
[tox] envlist = py27,py35,py36,pypy,pypy3 skipsdist = True [testenv] commands=python say.py
envlist directive defines the list of Pythons to test on.
Normally, tox assumes you are testing a project with its own
the simlicity of this demo, we are not using it, and we need to tell this to
tox via the
[testenv] section tells tox what commands to run
for the test, normally that would be
python setup.py test,
tox.ini, just run tox in the same directory:
$ tox [...] ERROR: py27: commands failed py35: commands succeeded py36: commands succeeded ERROR: pypy: commands failed pypy3: commands succeeded
As you can see, there’s something wrong with the script: it only works on Python 3. The full tox output (omitted here) contains the exact error. If you want to support old Python 2 as well, you’ll have to fix it:
# say.py from __future__ import print_function print('Fedora is the best OS for Python developers', end='\n\n')
$ tox [...] py27: commands succeeded py35: commands succeeded py36: commands succeeded pypy: commands succeeded pypy3: commands succeeded congratulations :)
If you want to use tox for your projects, you can learn more at the documentation.
Fedora only packages Python modules for current versions of
python3. For all other interpreters, you will need to install packages
from PyPI, the Python Package Index.
The best way is to use Python virtual environments (virtualenvs, or venvs).
The invocation to create them differs for different Python versions.
Packages installed in a virtualenv are only available once the virtualenv
is activated. Here you can see two demos that create virtualenv in a folder
env and install some package into it.
Recent versions of Python include the
venv module, which can create virtual
$ python3.5 -m venv env # create the virtualenv $ . env/bin/activate # activate it (env)$ python -m pip install requests # install a package with pip ... (env)$ python # run python from that virtualenv Python 3.5.2 (default, Aug 16 2016, 21:50:46) [GCC 5.3.1 20160406 (Red Hat 5.3.1-6)] on linux Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information. >>> import requests >>> ... (env)$ deactivate # go back to "normal"
For other Python versions, a tool called
virtualenv can create virtual
$ dnf install python-virtualenv # install the necessary tool $ virtualenv --python /usr/bin/python2.7 env # create the virtualenv Running virtualenv with interpreter /usr/bin/python2.7 New python executable in env/bin/python2.7 Also creating executable in env/bin/python Installing setuptools, pip...done. $ . env/bin/activate # activate it (env)$ python -m pip install requests # install a package with pip ... (env)$ python # run python from that virtualenv Python 2.7.11 (default, Jul 8 2016, 19:45:00) [GCC 5.3.1 20160406 (Red Hat 5.3.1-6)] on linux2 Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information. >>> import requests >>> ... (env)$ deactivate # go back to "normal"
If you don’t wish to use Python 2 at all, you might install
in the first step and than use
virtualenv-3 command instead of
To learn more about virtualenvs, visit The Hitchhiker’s Guide to Python.
MicroPython does not support virtual environments. It does have a rudimentary pip replacement called upip, which you can use to install packages that support MicroPython. Run it to find out more:
$ micropython -m upip