General-purpose, high-level programming language supporting multiple programming paradigms.
If you are working on a piece of Python software, you probably want to test it
on multiple Python interpreters. On Fedora, that’s easy: all you have to do is
dnf to install what you need.
Fedora includes all Python versions which are supported upstream, a few older ones and possibly a pre-release of a newer one.
At the time of this writing, Fedora has the following Pythons ready for you in the repositories:
Quite a nest, isn’t it? You can install them like this:
$ sudo dnf install python3.9 # to get CPython 3.9 $ sudo dnf install python3.8 # to get CPython 3.8 $ sudo dnf install python3.7 # to get CPython 3.7 $ sudo dnf install python3.6 # to get CPython 3.6 $ sudo dnf install python2.7 # to get CPython 2.7 $ sudo dnf install pypy2 pypy3 python3.10 # to get more at once
After that, you can run an interactive console or your script with, let’s say, CPython 3.6:
$ python3.6 Python 3.6.12 (default, Aug 19 2020, 00:00:00) [GCC 10.2.1 20200723 (Red Hat 10.2.1-1)] on linux Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information. >>>
Warning: For production purposes you should use the
package only. Other CPython versions might be unstable or even dangerous
(either because they are extremely old or quite the contrary alpha/beta quality)
and are intended solely for development.
* Interpreters marked with 💀 are to be removed in Fedora 35.
Tox is tool that helps you test your Python code on multiple Pythons. If you install it on Fedora via the dnf package manager, you’ll automatically get all supported CPythons and PyPys:
$ sudo dnf install tox
If you are not yet familiar with tox, don’t worry. This short example will show you how to start.
Let’s create a directory and a simple Python file in it that will say something nice:
# say.py print('Fedora is the best OS for Python developers', end='\n\n')
Now we’ll test if it works with all the Pythons, with tox.
We’ll create a simple configuration file for tox,
tox.ini, in the same
[tox] envlist = py27,py37,py38,py39,pypy,pypy3 skipsdist = True [testenv] commands=python say.py
envlist directive defines the list of Pythons to test on.
Normally, tox assumes you are testing a project with its own
the simplicity of this demo, we are not using it, and we need to tell this to
tox via the
commands in the
[testenv] section tells tox what commands to run
for the test.
Normally, that would be
python setup.py test,
pytest or similar.
tox.ini in place, run
tox in the same directory:
$ tox [...] ERROR: py27: commands failed py37: commands succeeded py38: commands succeeded py39: commands succeeded ERROR: pypy: commands failed pypy3: commands succeeded
As you can see, there’s something wrong with the script: it only works on Python 3. The full tox output (omitted here) contains the exact error. If you want to support old Python 2 as well, you’ll have to fix it:
# say.py from __future__ import print_function print('Fedora is the best OS for Python developers', end='\n\n')
$ tox [...] py27: commands succeeded py37: commands succeeded py38: commands succeeded py39: commands succeeded pypy: commands succeeded pypy3: commands succeeded congratulations :)
If you want to use tox for your projects, you can learn more at the documentation.
Fedora only packages Python modules for one current version of
For all other interpreters, you will need to install packages
from PyPI, the Python Package Index.
The best way is to use Python virtual environments.
The invocation to create them differs for different Python versions.
Packages installed in a virtual environment are only available once the
environment is activated.
Here you can see two demos that create a virtual environment in a folder
env and install some package into it.
Recent versions of Python 3 include the
venv module, which can create virtual
See the PyPI & pip section for details.
$ python3.9 -m venv env # create the environment $ source env/bin/activate # activate it (env)$ python -m pip install requests # install a package with pip ... (env)$ python # run python from that environment Python 3.9.0 (default, Oct 6 2020, 00:00:00) [GCC 10.2.1 20200723 (Red Hat 10.2.1-1)] on linux Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information. >>> import requests >>> ... >>> exit() (env)$ deactivate # go back to "normal"
The environment is a directory.
If you no longer need it, deactivate it and delete it with
rm -rv env.
For other Python versions, a tool called
virtualenv can create virtual
$ sudo dnf install /usr/bin/virtualenv # install the necessary tool $ virtualenv --python /usr/bin/python2.7 env # create the virtualenv Running virtualenv with interpreter /usr/bin/python2.7 New python executable in env/bin/python2.7 Also creating executable in env/bin/python Installing setuptools, pip...done. $ source env/bin/activate # activate it (env)$ python -m pip install requests # install a package with pip ... (env)$ python # run python from that virtualenv Python 2.7.11 (default, Jul 8 2016, 19:45:00) [GCC 5.3.1 20160406 (Red Hat 5.3.1-6)] on linux2 Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information. >>> import requests >>> ... >>> exit() (env)$ deactivate # go back to "normal"
Warning: Jython will be removed from Fedora in Fedora 35.
The versions of virtualenv and tox packages in Fedora do not support Jython, an interpreter that interoperates with the Java ecosystem.
If you need to support it, you will need to install and use older virtualenv/tox versions from PyPI.
First, create and activate a virtual environment with a newer Python, preferably
$ python3 -m venv py3env $ source py3env/bin/activate # activate it
Then, install older packages (virtualenv 15 and tox 2) into it:
(py3env)$ python -m pip install 'virtualenv<16' 'tox<3'
Now, whenever the Python 3 virtual environment is activated, you can invoke
tox 2 using the
jython in the
envlist section in
tox.ini to test
on that interpreters.
You can also use the older virtualenv to create environments for Jython:
(py3env)$ python -m virtualenv --python /usr/bin/jython jyenv --no-setuptools --no-pip --no-wheel
To activate these, you don’t need the
That is only needed to create them.
$ source jyenv/bin/activate (jyenv)$ python --version Jython 2.7.1
To be able to install packages, run Jython’s
This will install a compatible version of
(jyenv)$ python -m ensurepip (jyenv)$ python -m pip install requests
MicroPython does not support virtual environments. It does have a rudimentary pip replacement called upip, which you can use to install packages that support MicroPython. Run it to find out more:
$ micropython -m upip